February 26, 2007

Kiri Davis: The Media That Matters Film Festival

Posted in Uncategorized at 11:52 pm by satsanga

Here is a better Link

A Girl Like Me

7:08 min
Youth Documentary
Kiri Davis, Director, Reel Works Teen Filmmaking, Producer

Winner of the Diversity Award
Sponsored by Third Millennium Foundation

http://www.mediathatmattersfest.org/6/a_girl_like_me/index.php?fs=bios

Go Kiri Davis!!! You Make us PROUD! Young Girls and Self-Esteem: We Need to Build Each Other UP

Posted in Blogroll at 8:07 pm by satsanga

Kiri Davis is a young filmmaker whose high school documentary has left audiences at film festivals across the country stunned — and has re-ignited a powerful debate over race.

Click on the link below.
 
   The more things change, The more they stay the same!!!!
 
  Click Here!  After opening link, click on the left side of the monitor to start video.
 
http://www.komotv.com/home/video/5001856.html?video=YHI&t=a

February 25, 2007

Stop a Binge, Stop Restricting TIPS from Satsanga

Posted in Help for Those who Tend Toward Self-Destruction, SUNY at Buffalo Prevention and Treatment Group Updates at 3:17 pm by satsanga

There is a sort of new concept being talked about called harm reduction. It fits with the Satsanga Yoga and Wellness Model. That is, we work with where we are and honor our struggles and our attempts to do well. We also try and learn from challenges and slips and we can do this because we honor our struggles. When we are especially challenged and we are afraid we may have symptoms we can practice harm reduction. Here are some examples….

 If you have done all your prevention work, breathing, etc….and still feel very challenged and are feeling compelled to binge try these harm reduction strategies to get you through the binge without too much impact….after…we can process and learn and try to prevent the whole thing….but this will reduce harm

 1. Eat a can of soup. Gives you a full feeling and very low in calories. Also warming and comforting.

2. Eat a bowl of air popped popcorn sprayed with olive oil and lightly salted. It give the feeling of eating and eating…but impact low. Can give you time to cognitively recover.

3. A big veggie patty sandwhich. Garden bugers hardy and filling but, again, low impact.

4. Lite hot cocoa with any of the above or on its own.

 Restricting urges can be met in similar ways…..go for a safe food. It might feel like a slip back..but eating rather than fasting is a better choice. Have a backup of ensures or slimfasts for the days when maybe nothing feels safe and just get the calories in. Getting the meal in will tell you body it can trust food will be there and keep your metabolism steady.

1. Ensures….keep them there just in case or they sell slimfasts at all convenient stores if you “forget”

2. Veggie patties seem to feel safe for everyone.

3. Your favorite safe packaged food as a back-up.

4. A hardy soup.

5. Subway sandwhich..even if you “forgot” your lunch you can pick these up anywhere

In Both cases…keep a back-up of supply for the struggle days…just in case…so you are prepared. If you never need them…you never need them….

February 23, 2007

Media Watch: Video on Ads …Check this one out

Posted in Blogroll at 2:57 am by satsanga

Click here…

http://www.mediawatch.com/welcome.html

February 19, 2007

Stacey Prussman’s Eating Disorder Lecture: A Survivor!!!!

Posted in Memior Videos- People who have made it at 9:24 pm by satsanga

Stacey Prussman

This link goes to her video on eating disorders. It is only a short version of her lecture. You can click on the second link and find out how to have her on campus to speak. Really inspirational : )

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPVK_HkKYYg
  http://www.myspace.com/nomorebrokenmirrors
http://www.campuspeak.com

February 18, 2007

Why do we need Mental Health Law?

Posted in Blogroll at 4:44 pm by satsanga

Eating disorder tragedy adds life to health unit

By Michael Jacobson

 Heather Henderson’s life story was brought to life last week to emphasize the dangers of eating disorders to the eighth grade girls at Paynesville Area Middle School.Henderson, a 1991 PAHS graduate, struggled with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa for 11 years before dying from related heart failure in September 2000. Her mother Kris (pictured above left) told Heather’s story to the eighth grade girls, who were studying eating disorders in health class.”Life for me is not the same since Heather died…because part of me died, too,” Kris told the class, before recounting Heather’s struggle with the disease, her professional work to combat it and its popular causes, and her failure to ever free herself from the disease.Heather’s eating disorder started as a high school sophomore, while losing ten pounds for prom. “That eating disorder grabbed her so fast,” Kris told the girls. “After she lost those 10 pounds, she didn’t know how to get rid of it either.”The Hendersons tried treatment immediately, but could never get Heather the type of treatment she needed because of limited treatment options and strict restrictions to eating disorder programs.In her professional life, Heather became a journalist, working as an intern at the Press for two summers, before starting her career for a suburban Twin Cities’ weekly. She then switched to magazines, first in the Twin Cities, and then in Duluth, where she became the editor of HUES, a feminist magazine for young women. HUES contained no advertising, so it was free of the media messages to women that say: looks are everything.

People need to question the media images of what the ideal look should be, Kris told the girls. “Feel good about yourselves,” she said. “Be critical thinkers.”

“You shouldn’t weigh your self esteem by how much you weigh,” added Diane Dutcher, using an anti-eating-disorder slogan. Dutcher teaches eighth grade health for girls and was Heather’s high school gymnastics coach.

Heather’s story has received national attention within the last year, including lengthy stories in the Duluth News-Tribune, the St. Paul Pioneer Press, and the Minneapolis Star Tribune. The Paynesville Press did a four-part series about Heather last winter.

Heather’s story has also been used in a briefing for Congressmen in Washington, D.C. Most recently, Heather was one of three eating disorder victims to be remembered during a vigil at the American University in Washington, D.C.

Heather’s family agreed to tell Heather’s story as much as they could to continue her work against eating disorders. Kris says she talks about Heather whenever she can.

 With the eighth graders, she stressed that eating disorders are not cool at all and are serious, dangerous diseases. “It’s not neat. It’s not fun to go up to the bathroom and find evidence that your daughter was throwing up,” she said.

Heather’s disease and their unsuccessful efforts to treat it caused a lot of family stress and parental worry. They worried about Heather’s health and eating habits, Kris worried about whether Heather would eat her cooking, and they even worried about Heather’s driving, if she wasn’t going to eat enough to concentrate, said Kris.

Kristen Nietfeld and Katie Schlick check out the press coverage about Heather Henderson that ran posthumously.

Heather’s story gave real-life insight to their health unit on eating disorders, agreed eighth grade students Kelly Herzberg, Jessica Leyendecker, Kayla Plantenberg, and Amanda Skalicky.

From talking about eating disorders in the book, hearing Heather’s story turned them into reality, said Leyendecker.

Before Kris’s talk, Plantenberg didn’t really realize that eating disorders could be deadly.

“Once you do it, you can’t stop. You need help,” said Jessica Leyendecker.

Already the girls see signs that concern them at school, primarily students not eating lunch, either in an effort to lose weight or to avoid “looking like a pig.”

The eighth grade girls were also struck by the struggle the family faced in getting treatment for Heather’s disease. “I thought that was really bad,” said Leyendecker.

The key is to be happy with yourself, said Amanda Skalicky.

“It shouldn’t matter what you look like,” added Herzberg.

Kris used an analogy of seashells to stress the importance of inner beauty. Shells might look weathered on their outer shell, but their true colors are shown on the inside.

Your support is needed to pass new national mental health parity bill

Posted in Blogroll at 12:17 am by satsanga

Your support is needed to pass new national mental health parity bill-

A Message from the Amercan Foundation for Suicide

On Feb. 14, the Mental Health Parity Act of 2007 was approved in the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee of the U.S. Senate. This represents the first critical step towards enactment in the Senate.

The bill was introduced in the Senate on Feb. 12 by Sens. Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.), Pete Domenici (R-N.M.) and Mike Enzi (R-Wyo.), who announced this breakthrough on legislation that will ensure greater health insurance coverage for persons with mental illness. The bill will help end insurance discrimination against persons with mental disorders by closing loopholes in existing federal law. The legislation would ensure mental health parity for more than 100 million Americans who work for employers with 50 or more employees. Read about ( S.558).

Ninety percent of people who die by suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric illness at the time of their death. This bill will help make treatment more accessible to those at risk.

Therefore, AFSP supports passage of this national mental health parity legislation and urges that you contact your U.S. senators and ask them to cosponsor this bill — and to support this bill when it comes to the floor for a vote.  

Find and Contact the Senators in Your State


Collectively, we raised awareness that it is both dangerous and inappropriate to use suicide as a theme to sell products

Over the past two weeks, AFSP and other organizations urged General Motors and then Volkswagen to drop ads that used mental illness and suicide themes in their advertising campaigns. The criticism received enormous media attention, and the companies heard from people who were concerned or offended by their ads. This resulted in decisions by both GM and Volkswagen to discontinue the ads, and in GM’s case assuring AFSP that they will revise the ad to remove any indication of suicide before re-releasing it.

AFSP has publicly and privately thanked General Motors and Volkswagen for listening to our concerns and acting responsibility.

As a result of the responsible decisions made by GM and Volkswagen, it is our hope that advertisers and companies will become more sensitive to the issues of mental illness and suicide, and not use such themes in future advertising campaigns. Read today’s article in USA Today on Volkswagen’s decision.

We have made a difference. Thank you.

Bob Gebbia
Executive Director
American Foundation for Suicide

February 14, 2007

Snow Day for Group Today 2-14-07

Posted in SUNY at Buffalo Prevention and Treatment Group Updates at 8:32 pm by satsanga

girl-with-long-hair-dancing.jpg

No group tonight. We will miss each other…but safe is more important than happy.

 If you’d like, work on journal sheets to turn in and work on breathing and mindfullness. We didn’t read through those pages week 1 and they are worth reflection.

Keep warm and steady. Hydrate yourself and focus on self-care. We will be together next week!

Catherine

February 13, 2007

How do I eat????? Intuitive Eating for Recovery from the Center for Change

Posted in Eating Disorder Recovery Resources at 3:39 pm by satsanga

Articles – Intuitive Eating: Relearning How to Eat for Life

Rebekah Mardis RD, CD

www.centerforchange.com

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of teaching intuitive eating to the eating disorder sufferer is to return the patient to a time when they ate to live and didn’t live to eat. A child has a healthy relationship with food and honors their body in an appropriate manner. By recognizing and responding to hunger, a child is able to adequately fuel their body whether they are growing, highly active, or at rest. Most people are born with the ability to keep themselves healthy and alive without an external locus of control regarding food. Of course food needs to be available but by listening and trusting ones body, a person can live a healthy life, at a healthy weight, without obsessing about food, weight, body, calories, and fat.

TEACHING INTUITIVE EATING:

Eating disorder patients have an excellent knowledge of food. Some of that information has been warped into promoting eating disorder behaviors. Intuitive eating has little to do with the knowledge of food, it has to do with increasing their knowledge and trust of themselves. Recovering from an eating disorder is like being reborn. A lot of basic functions, such as hunger and fullness need to be relearned. The number one factor to patients becoming successful with intuitive eating is trust. First, trust in the system, and second, to learn to trust themselves. Many patients feel they are broken and that it won’t work for them. Many patients have had experience using the exchange system. To them, this is another diet, a way to control themselves with a plan, it also promotes their belief that they are broken and will never be able to be normal again.

SEVEN STEPS TO LEARNING INTUITIVE EATING:
First Step: Trust Someone Else, Rather Than The Eating Disorder.

Patients need to be able to commit without reservations, maybe a few at first, that they are tired of their eating disorder and willing to give it up and try things differently even if they gain weight. If patients commit full heartedly, then weight gain is very limited. Their motivation to have a life without an eating disorder can be seen if they are able to say “it’s okay if I gain weight.” If a patient is a readmit, and has tried the exchange system, or has tried to eat normally on their own, they seem more willing to try things differently and accept intuitive eating.

Second Step: Establish the Basic Framework

Some patients are used to grazing all day, restricting until they are numb, or eating until they are numb. They ignore their hunger and fulness. Even though there is a basic structure in intuitive eating, nothing is wrong, abnormal, or bad. Food is food, we all eat differently and nobody’s way is better than another persons. It’s all okay. Willpower has nothing to do with food intake and they can never fail because there is no right or wrong.

At Center for Change, patients have meals and snacks at specific times throughout the day. Biologically, the human body needs food every 3-4 hours. The starved body needs time to get readjusted to food and to feel comfortable in a stable food environment.

In planning for discharge and with outpatients, there are some logical times to eat. The may choose their first meal before work/school.Second meal at lunch-time and their third meal after work/school. They should take food with them so it is always readily available. The goal is to never get hungry. Three meals a day are minimum and some patients may choose to eat six or more meals a day.

Third Step: Recognize Hunger / Fullness

Eating disorder victims are not broken they have just become comfortable with ignoring their bodies’ needs.

It is slightly embarrassing for some patients to admit how vulnerable they are in this area. They know a lot about food but are unable to feed themselves and can’t distinguish exactly when they are hungry or full. Letting patients know that it is not an exact science is helpful. When their stomachs hurt they have waited too long to eat or have eaten too much. Using their senses to recognize hunger is also helpful. If it looks, smells, or tastes good, then they may be hungry. Patients at the Center monitor their hunger and fullness on a scale of 1-10. They rate hunger/fullness for meals but not specific foods. This assignment helps to prompt the patient to pay attention to their body. This step also closely parallels their acceptance of their body. It is very difficult to trust something they hate.

Fourth Step: Eat a Balanced Diet

After food is broken down, the body doesn’t know where the protein, carbohydrate, or fat come from. It cannot tell if the carbohydrate, fat, protein mix came from a cookie and milk or salad with meat and cheese. However, the body needs a mix of these three fuels in order to function well. For balance, we ask that patients consume carbohydrate, protein, and fat at major eating times during the day (at least three).

An example:
First meal: Pizza
Snack: Cookies and milk
Second meal: Salad with cheese and meat
Third meal: Granola cereal with yogurt
Snack: Candy bar and milk

Clients have an extremely good knowledge of food. I feel that it is a disservice to teach them about food when they need to be learning to trust themselves. It is also important for patients and their families to avoid any traditional beliefs that they have regarding food. Just because it is a “meal” don’t assume that certain types of foods or specific amounts are necessary or present.

Fifth Step: Make Peace with Food

Food is just food. There is no good or bad food. Every food is okay and nourishing in some aspect. Patients may experience a period of time where they eat large amounts of what would traditionally be considered “unhealthy” foods. This is a time for them to reacquaint themselves with “forbidden” foods. They need to learn that it is only food and it is okay to enjoy food without guilt and that their worst nightmares do not come true. This is a time when they relearn what they like, what foods feel good in them physically, and how much is too much or too little.

Sixth Step: Learn to Savor the Eating Experience

“Knowing what you like to eat, and believing that you have the right to enjoy food, are key factors in a lifetime of weight control without dieting.” Intuitive Eating by Tribole and Resch.

Seventh Step: Use the Following Tips to Prevent Lapses

1. No scales, measuring tapes, measuring spoons, or cups.

2. No label reading, counting calories, or planning menus.

3. Never diet again.

4. Do not label foods as good or bad.

5. Participate only in forms of exercise that you enjoy and that help you to feel good.

6. Eat what you like and savor the eating experience. Taste your food, relax, check out the taste in the middle of the meal. Does it still taste good? If it doesn’t taste good, don’t eat it, and if you love it, savor it.

7. Eat at least three meals a day.

8. Regarding food: be more cautious about under-doing it than over-doing it. Over-doing it evens out more easily in the long run. Under-doing it sets you up for the restrict/binge/purge cycle.

Learning to eat intuitively takes a lot of faith and practice. It is not a quick fix or magic pill. It is a long term approach that is definitely worth all the hard work put into it.

Link to the Center for Change: A Place for Hope and Healing Specialized Treatment for Eating Disorders

www.centerforchange.com

February 11, 2007

National Institute of Mental Health defines Eating Disorders

Posted in Eating Disorder Recovery Resources at 4:21 pm by satsanga

Eating is controlled by many factors, including appetite, food availability, family, peer, and cultural practices, and attempts at voluntary control. Dieting to a body weight leaner than needed for health is highly promoted by current fashion trends, sales campaigns for special foods, and in some activities and professions. Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Researchers are investigating how and why initially voluntary behaviors, such as eating smaller or larger amounts of food than usual, at some point move beyond control in some people and develop into an eating disorder. Studies on the basic biology of appetite control and its alteration by prolonged overeating or starvation have uncovered enormous complexity, but in the long run have the potential to lead to new pharmacologic treatments for eating disorders.

Eating disorders are not due to a failure of will or behavior; rather, they are real, treatable medical illnesses in which certain maladaptive patterns of eating take on a life of their own. The main types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.1 A third type, binge-eating disorder, has been suggested but has not yet been approved as a formal psychiatric diagnosis.2 Eating disorders frequently develop during adolescence or early adulthood, but some reports indicate their onset can occur during childhood or later in adulthood.3

Eating disorders frequently co-occur with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders.1 In addition, people who suffer from eating disorders can experience a wide range of physical health complications, including serious heart conditions and kidney failure which may lead to death. Recognition of eating disorders as real and treatable diseases, therefore, is critically important.

Females are much more likely than males to develop an eating disorder. Only an estimated 5 to 15 percent of people with anorexia or bulimia4 and an estimated 35 percent of those with binge-eating disorder5 are male.

Anorexia Nervosa

An estimated 0.5 to 3.7 percent of females suffer from anorexia nervosa in their lifetime.1 Symptoms of anorexia nervosa include:

  • Resistance to maintaining body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height
  • Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight
  • Disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight
  • Infrequent or absent menstrual periods (in females who have reached puberty)

People with this disorder see themselves as overweight even though they are dangerously thin. The process of eating becomes an obsession. Unusual eating habits develop, such as avoiding food and meals, picking out a few foods and eating these in small quantities, or carefully weighing and portioning food. People with anorexia may repeatedly check their body weight, and many engage in other techniques to control their weight, such as intense and compulsive exercise, or purging by means of vomiting and abuse of laxatives, enemas, and diuretics. Girls with anorexia often experience a delayed onset of their first menstrual period.

The course and outcome of anorexia nervosa vary across individuals: some fully recover after a single episode; some have a fluctuating pattern of weight gain and relapse; and others experience a chronically deteriorating course of illness over many years. The mortality rate among people with anorexia has been estimated at 0.56 percent per year, or approximately 5.6 percent per decade, which is about 12 times higher than the annual death rate due to all causes of death among females ages 15-24 in the general population.6 The most common causes of death are complications of the disorder, such as cardiac arrest or electrolyte imbalance, and suicide.

Bulimia Nervosa

An estimated 1.1 percent to 4.2 percent of females have bulimia nervosa in their lifetime.1 Symptoms of bulimia nervosa include:

  • Recurrent episodes of binge eating, characterized by eating an excessive amount of food within a discrete period of time and by a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode
  • Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications (purging); fasting; or excessive exercise
  • The binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors both occur, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months
  • Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight

Because purging or other compensatory behavior follows the binge-eating episodes, people with bulimia usually weigh within the normal range for their age and height. However, like individuals with anorexia, they may fear gaining weight, desire to lose weight, and feel intensely dissatisfied with their bodies. People with bulimia often perform the behaviors in secrecy, feeling disgusted and ashamed when they binge, yet relieved once they purge.

Binge-Eating Disorder

Community surveys have estimated that between 2 percent and 5 percent of Americans experience binge-eating disorder in a 6-month period.5,7 Symptoms of binge-eating disorder include:

  • Recurrent episodes of binge eating, characterized by eating an excessive amount of food within a discrete period of time and by a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode
  • The binge-eating episodes are associated with at least 3 of the following: eating much more rapidly than normal; eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry; eating alone because of being embarrassed by how much one is eating; feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or very guilty after overeating
  • Marked distress about the binge-eating behavior
  • The binge eating occurs, on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months
  • The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors (e.g., purging, fasting, excessive exercise)

People with binge-eating disorder experience frequent episodes of out-of-control eating, with the same binge-eating symptoms as those with bulimia. The main difference is that individuals with binge-eating disorder do not purge their bodies of excess calories. Therefore, many with the disorder are overweight for their age and height. Feelings of self-disgust and shame associated with this illness can lead to bingeing again, creating a cycle of binge eating.

Treatment Strategies1

Eating disorders can be treated and a healthy weight restored. The sooner these disorders are diagnosed and treated, the better the outcomes are likely to be. Because of their complexity, eating disorders require a comprehensive treatment plan involving medical care and monitoring, psychosocial interventions, nutritional counseling and, when appropriate, medication management. At the time of diagnosis, the clinician must determine whether the person is in immediate danger and requires hospitalization.

Treatment of anorexia calls for a specific program that involves three main phases: (1) restoring weight lost to severe dieting and purging; (2) treating psychological disturbances such as distortion of body image, low self-esteem, and interpersonal conflicts; and (3) achieving long-term remission and rehabilitation, or full recovery. Early diagnosis and treatment increases the treatment success rate. Use of psychotropic medication in people with anorexia should be considered only after weight gain has been established. Certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to be helpful for weight maintenance and for resolving mood and anxiety symptoms associated with anorexia.

The acute management of severe weight loss is usually provided in an inpatient hospital setting, where feeding plans address the person’s medical and nutritional needs. In some cases, intravenous feeding is recommended. Once malnutrition has been corrected and weight gain has begun, psychotherapy (often cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal psychotherapy) can help people with anorexia overcome low self-esteem and address distorted thought and behavior patterns. Families are sometimes included in the therapeutic process.

The primary goal of treatment for bulimia is to reduce or eliminate binge eating and purging behavior. To this end, nutritional rehabilitation, psychosocial intervention, and medication management strategies are often employed. Establishment of a pattern of regular, non-binge meals, improvement of attitudes related to the eating disorder, encouragement of healthy but not excessive exercise, and resolution of co-occurring conditions such as mood or anxiety disorders are among the specific aims of these strategies. Individual psychotherapy (especially cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal psychotherapy), group psychotherapy that uses a cognitive-behavioral approach, and family or marital therapy have been reported to be effective. Psychotropic medications, primarily antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have been found helpful for people with bulimia, particularly those with significant symptoms of depression or anxiety, or those who have not responded adequately to psychosocial treatment alone. These medications also may help prevent relapse. The treatment goals and strategies for binge-eating disorder are similar to those for bulimia, and studies are currently evaluating the effectiveness of various interventions.

People with eating disorders often do not recognize or admit that they are ill. As a result, they may strongly resist getting and staying in treatment. Family members or other trusted individuals can be helpful in ensuring that the person with an eating disorder receives needed care and rehabilitation. For some people, treatment may be long term.

Research Findings and Directions

Research is contributing to advances in the understanding and treatment of eating disorders.

  • NIMH-funded scientists and others continue to investigate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, medications, and the combination of these treatments with the goal of improving outcomes for people with eating disorders.8,9
  • Research on interrupting the binge-eating cycle has shown that once a structured pattern of eating is established, the person experiences less hunger, less deprivation, and a reduction in negative feelings about food and eating. The two factors that increase the likelihood of bingeing—hunger and negative feelings—are reduced, which decreases the frequency of binges.10
  • Several family and twin studies are suggestive of a high heritability of anorexia and bulimia,11,12 and researchers are searching for genes that confer susceptibility to these disorders.13 Scientists suspect that multiple genes may interact with environmental and other factors to increase the risk of developing these illnesses. Identification of susceptibility genes will permit the development of improved treatments for eating disorders.
  • Other studies are investigating the neurobiology of emotional and social behavior relevant to eating disorders and the neuroscience of feeding behavior.
  • Scientists have learned that both appetite and energy expenditure are regulated by a highly complex network of nerve cells and molecular messengers called neuropeptides.14,15 These and future discoveries will provide potential targets for the development of new pharmacologic treatments for eating disorders.
  • Further insight is likely to come from studying the role of gonadal steroids.16,17 Their relevance to eating disorders is suggested by the clear gender effect in the risk for these disorders, their emergence at puberty or soon after, and the increased risk for eating disorders among girls with early onset of menstruation.

For More Information

Eating Disorders Information and Organizations from NLM’s MedlinePlus (en Español)

References

1American Psychiatric Association Work Group on Eating Disorders. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (revision). American Journal of Psychiatry, 2000; 157(1 Suppl): 1-39.

2American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994.

3Becker AE, Grinspoon SK, Klibanski A, Herzog DB. Eating disorders. New England Journal of Medicine, 1999; 340(14): 1092-8.

4Andersen AE. Eating disorders in males. In: Brownell KD, Fairburn CG, eds. Eating disorders and obesity: a comprehensive handbook. New York: Guilford Press, 1995; 177-87.

5Spitzer RL, Yanovski S, Wadden T, Wing R, Marcus MD, Stunkard A, Devlin M, Mitchell J, Hasin D, Horne RL. Binge eating disorder: its further validation in a multisite study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 1993; 13(2): 137-53.

6Sullivan PF. Mortality in anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1995; 152(7): 1073-4.

7Bruce B, Agras WS. Binge eating in females: a population-based investigation. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 1992; 12: 365-73.

8Agras WS. Pharmacotherapy of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: longer-term outcomes. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 1997; 33(3): 433-6.

9Wilfley DE, Cohen LR. Psychological treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 1997; 33(3): 437-54.

10Apple RF, Agras WS. Overcoming eating disorders. A cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia and binge-eating disorder. San Antonio: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1997.

11Strober M, Freeman R, Lampert C, Diamond J, Kaye W. Controlled family study of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: evidence of shared liability and transmission of partial syndromes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2000; 157(3): 393-401.

12Walters EE, Kendler KS. Anorexia nervosa and anorexic-like syndromes in a population-based female twin sample. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1995; 152(1): 64-71.

13Kaye WH, Lilenfeld LR, Berrettini WH, Strober M, Devlin B, Klump KL, Goldman D, Bulik CM, Halmi KA, Fichter MM, Kaplan A, Woodside DB, Treasure J, Plotnicov KH, Pollice C, Rao R, McConaha CW. A search for susceptibility loci for anorexia nervosa: methods and sample description. Biological Psychiatry, 2000; 47(9): 794-803.

14Frank GK, Kaye WH, Altemus M, Greeno CG. CSF oxytocin and vasopressin levels after recovery from bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa, bulimic subtype. Biological Psychiatry, 2000; 48(4): 315-8.

15Elias CF, Kelly JF, Lee CE, Ahima RS, Drucker DJ, Saper CB, Elmquist JK. Chemical characterization of leptin-activated neurons in the rat brain. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2000; 423(2): 261-81.

16Devlin MJ, Walsh BT, Katz JL, Roose SP, Linkei DM, Wright L, Vande Wiele R, Glassman AH. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Psychiatry Research, 1989; 28(1): 11-24.

17Flanagan-Cato LM, King JF, Blechman JG, O’Brien MP. Estrogen reduces cholecystokinin-induced c-Fos expression in the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology, 1998; 67(6): 384-91.


This publication was written by Melissa Spearing, Public Information and Communications Branch, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Expert assistance was provided by NIMH Director Steven E. Hyman, M.D., and NIMH staff members Bruce N. Cuthbert, Ph.D., Regina Dolan-Sewell, Ph.D., Benedetto Vitiello, Ph.D., Clarissa K. Wittenberg, and Constance Burr. Editorial assistance was provided by Margaret Strock and Lisa D. Alberts, also NIMH staff members.

NIH Publication No. 01-4901
Printed 2001

Next page